LIGA stands for X-ray LIthography, Electroforming (German: Galvanoformung), and molding (German: Abformung). This technology allows us to define high aspect ratio structures in nickel. The process consists of exposing a sheet of PMMA bonded to a wafer using X-ray lithography. The PMMA is then developed and the exposed material is removed. Nickel is then electroplated up in the open areas of the PMMA. The nickel over-plate is removed by polishing, leaving high aspect ratio nickel parts. The PMMA is removed, and the nickel parts may remain anchored to the substrate or be released.