Process Hierarchy

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  Nickel LIGA (suspended structures) (PMMA)
Process characteristics:
Nickel thickness
Nickel thickness*
must be 0 .. 500 µm
0 .. 500 µm
Resist thickness
Resist thickness*
must be 0 .. 1000 µm
0 .. 1000 µm
Gold thickness 0.1 µm
Mold deviation across height 2 µm
Mold height uniformity 10 µm
Mold sidewall roughness 200 nm
Release layer thickness 3 µm
Smallest feature size 5 µm
Titanium thickness 0.01 µm
Wafer size
Wafer size
  • This LIGA process is used to
    make anchored structures that
    are partly suspended over the
  • Application examples:
    Accelerometers, gyros,
    comb-finger actuators.
  • Pricing available upon request.
  • Process requires an X-ray
    mask. Please refer to
    'Mask-making' section.
  • Process is confined to a 2"
    diameter area.