Process Hierarchy

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  Copper electroplating
Process characteristics:
Plating area
Area to be plated.
Plating area
Area to be plated., must be 0.31 .. 7850 mm2
0.31 .. 7850 mm2
Amount of material added to a wafer
Amount of material added to a wafer, must be 2 .. 30 µm
2 .. 30 µm
Aspect ratio 0.1 .. 15
Current 0.0001 .. 2.53 A
Material copper
Sides processed either
Temperature 25 °C
Voltage 3 V
Wafer size
Wafer size
Equipment Custom Cu plating bath
Equipment characteristics:
Batch sizes 100 mm: 1, 50 mm: 1, 75 mm: 1
MOS clean no
Wafer geometry
Types of wafers this equipment can accept
1-flat, 2-flat, no-flat, notched
Wafer materials
List of wafer materials this tool can accept (not list of all materials, just the wafer itself).
alumina, Pyrex (Corning 7740), quartz (fused silica), quartz (single crystal), sapphire, silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon on sapphire
Wafer thickness
List or range of wafer thicknesses the tool can accept
200 .. 2000 µm
  • Deposition rate and uniformity have been found to be dependent on pattern. Typically several test wafers (approx. 3) will be needed to ensure correct thickness and uniformity on product wafers.
  • Wafers must have a seed layer.
  • Preferred seed layer: 300A Cr/ 500A Cu
  • Electrolyte: CuSO4
  • Agitation method: reciprocating paddle
  • Equipment is capable of pulsed plating, but process is not offered at this time.
  • Thicker plating than 30 microns is possible, but uniformity for thicker plating is unknown at this time. Upper limit is 350 microns.
  • Plating is maintained through controlled current density of 0.3229 mA/mm2.
  • Voltage is not controlled, and "floats" to about 3.0V.
  • Other process information: anode is platinum (process does not replenish through anode); additive is SEL-REX CUBATH M, manufactured by Enthone-OMI Inc.
  • Process may be flexible, so other parameters may be considered: different plating thicknesses, wafers thicknesses, etc. Inquire regarding non-standard processing.